June 2009                                           VOL. C No. 6

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Planned Teaching Programme on Environmental Health

Leena Abraham

Environmental threats vary considerably in urban and rural areas, within communities, countries and regions but the health and pollution problems are global. The environmental exposure patterns and behaviours of children are very different from those of adults and may result in greater exposures. The Anganwadi teachers are in direct contact with children and people in the community.

They should understand the importance of environmental health; this can be done utilising the brief interventions. Nurses must be well informed about the potential benefits of intervention programmes. The study sample consisted of 54 Anganwadi teachers selected using convenience sampling technique from Udupi district of Karnataka.

Objectives
The objectives of the study were, to
(i) determine the knowledge of Anganwadi teachers regarding environmental health,
(ii) develop and validate planned teaching programme on environmental health,
(iii) determine the effectiveness of planned teaching programme in terms of gain in knowledge in post-test, and (iv) find the association between pre-test level of knowledge of teachers regarding


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environmental health with selected variables viz. educational sta-tus, years of experience, socioeconomic status and exposure to mass media.

Assumptions
The study assumptions included
(i) basic knowledge on environmental health, willingness to participate in the study and give free and frank response during the pre and post-test;
(ii) planned teaching programme will bring change in the knowedge of Anganwadi teachers regarding environmental health, and
(iii) Anganwadi teachers play a significant role in improving the environmental health in a community.

The conceptual framework of the study was based on Goal Attainment Theory of Imogene King. The research design was evaluative approach with one group pre-test post-test pre-experimental design. The population selected for the present study comprised of Anganwadi teachers from Udupi District. This district has 3 taluks of which Udupi taluk was selected.

The study sample consisted of 54 Anganwadi teachers from selected areas of Udupi district. There was a mortality of 4 samples during the post-test. Research Tools and Techniques : The three data collection instruments developed and used by the researcher for the research study were : Tool 1 : Demographic Proforma Tool 2 : Exposure to mass media Tool 3 : Structured Knowledge

questionnaire on environmental health The content validity of the developed tools and the planned teaching programme was established by giving it to seven experts from various fields. The pre-testing was done by administering the tool to 5 Anganwadi teachers from Kundapura Taluk. Reliability of the structured knowledge questionnaire was determined by test-retest method on 20 Anganwadi teachers from Kundapura taluk.

The reliability of the structured knowledge questionnaire was, r=0.9 Pilot Study : The pilot study was conducted on 10 Anganwadi Teachers from Karkala taluk and the study design was found to be feasible and practicable.

Findings of the Study
Characteristics sample : Most of the Anganwadi teachers (26, 48.15%) belong to the age group of 31-40 years.
Most of the Anganwadi teachers’ (74.04%) education qualifications was SSLC. Out of 54 Anganwadi teachers, most (25, 46.3%) had 12-23 years of experience; majority of Anganwadi teachers (46, 85.19%) had low per capita income; Majority of Anganwadi teachers (45, 83.33%) had moderate exposure to mass media.

Effectiveness of the planned teaching programme on environmental health : There was gain in knowledge scores of Anganwadi teachers (Table 1). Significance of difference between mean pre-test and post-test knowledge scores has been shown in Table 2.


Table 1 : Frequency and percentage distribution of pre-test and post-test knowledge scores of Anganwadi teachers (N=50)
Knowledge Scores
Pre-Test Scores

Frequency        Percentage
Post-Test Scores

Frequency         Percentage

Good (25-36)

Average (13-24)

Poor (0-12)

Total

16                      32

34                      68

0                        0

50                      100

50                       100

0                         0

0                         0

50                       100

Maximum possible score : 36

Table 3 shows the association between pre-test knowledge socres of Anganwadi teachers with selected variables. The findings of the present study are supported by a pre-experimental study with one group pre-test posttest design, conducted at a primary health centre in Devanhalli Taluk. The sampling technique was convenient sampling with a sample size of 46. The findings revealed that mean percentage was 44.9% in the pre-test and 83.35% in the post-test. [t(45) = 19.8, p<0.001]. As for association between knowledge scores and selected variables, an explorative study conducted to assess the knowledge of Anganwadi teachers in the management

of minor ailments of children attending anganwadis with a view to develop SIM in Bangalore Urban district came up with similar findings. Results showed that there was no significant relationship between the knowledge of Anganwadi workers and age, educational status, monthly honorarium, experience of work and exposure to in-service training on child care.

Implications of the Study
The present study enables Anganwadi teachers to gain knowledge on environmental health which could in turn help Anganwadi teachers to adopt healthy practices and teach children. Nursing education : Nursing education should prepare nurses with the potential for

imparting health information effectively and assist the people in the community in developing self care potentials. It should emphasise more on prospective nurses to impart health education regarding environmental health. The nurse must therefore be prepared to develop and implement teaching strategies related to environmental health.

Nursing practice : Health education programmes conducted by the nursing personnel in community setting help in imparting knowledge to Anganwadi teachers on environmental health. It also helps the Anganwadi teachers to care for children in Anganwadi centres with proper knowledge and confidence. Nursing administration : Nurs-

Knowledge Scores Mean Mean Difference Standard Deviation Standard error of mean p value t value

Pre-test

Post-test

23.1

33.7

10.60

2.4

1.96

0.34

0.28

0.001 43.84
t(49)=2.0, p<0.05
S. No. Variables Knowledge
Good       Average
x2 df Level of Significance
1 Qualification
1.1 SSLC
1.2 PUC & BA
13          27
4           10
0.08 1 Not significant
2 Years of experience
2.1 1 to 11
2.2 12 to 23
2.3 24 to 35
4            19
11           14
2            4
3.37 2 Not significant
3 Per capita income
3.1 Low
3.2 Middle
3.3 High

13          33
3             3
1             1
0.73 2 Not significant
4 Exposure to mass media
4.1 High
4.2 Moderate & Low

1             5
16           32
2.33 1 Not significant
x2=3.841, x2=5.99, (p<0.05)

ing administrators are the high persons to identify the nature of the problem and organise programmes related to health promotion to the target population. Nurse administrators can also take the initiative in imparting health information through different effective teaching methods.

They have to support and encourage the nursing students to participate in the health promotion activities. Individual and group teachings can be arranged for Anganwadi teachers.

Nursing research : The information drawn out of researches may help the government also to plan preventive measures. The study findings relvealed an increase in knowledge of Anganwadi environmental health. This demonstrates the need for regular education programme to keep them informed about

environmental health problems. Nurse researchers can conduct studies on assessment of needs of the Anganwadi teachers in terms of their knowledge, attitude, beliefs and practices in caring for children and can determine the effectiveness of the education in terms of improved and healthy rearing practices.

References 1. Park I (2007). Park’s textbook of preventive & social medicine. 19th edn. Jabalpur : Banarsidas Bhanot 2. Gupta P, Ghai PO (2007). Textbook of preventive and social medicine. 2nd edn. New Delhi : CBS Publishers 3. Premji S, et al (2007). Socioeconomic correlates of municipal level pollution emissions on Montreal Island. Canadian Journal of Public Health (98) 2, 138-142
4. Shashidhara YN (2005). Effectiveness of structured teaching programme regarding

biomedical waste management among health team members of PHCs of Devanahalli Taluk, Karnataka. Unpublished Master of Nursing Thesis. Ragiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences 5. Rajesh N (2003). An explorative study to assess the knowledge of Anganwadi teachers in the management of monor ailments of children attending anganwadi with a view to develop self instructional module (SIM) in Bangalore Urban District, Karnataka. Unpublished Master of Nursing Thesis.

Ragiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences 6. Kishtwaria J, Katoch S and Sharma A (2005). A comparative study of environmental hygiene and sanitation practices followed by rural and urban respondents. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, 25(7), 620 - 624

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