Learning is the process of growth and development whereby
the learner acquires a body of knowledge, develops ideas
which one makes a part of oneself and develops the ability
to use such knowledge in the pursuit of chosen ideals.
Learning is a part of education, which brings modification
of behaviour. Teaching is a process which facilitates
learning by encouraging learners to think, feel and
do. Teaching is a system of directed and deliberate
actions that are intended to induce learning through
a series of activities designed to induce learning (Heidgerken,
1953). Both teaching and learning involve series of
actions and activities. A model tries to explain the
concepts involved and its interrelationship. It is a
visual aid or a picture which highlights the main ideas
and variables in a process or a system. Many researchers
have tried to put together classroom or school-based
models that describe the teaching-learning process.
The main models discussed and compared are by Carroll
(1963), Proctor (1984), Cruickshank (1985), Gage and
Berliner (1992) and Huitt (1995). This article aims
at explaining the various models of teachinglearning
process and their
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application in nursing.
1. John Carroll’s Model It is basically related to
school learning. However, it can be applicable to
nursing. Carroll states that time is the most important
variable in school learning. A simple equation for
Carroll’s model is:
School Learning = f(Time spent / Time needed)
Time spent is the function of opportunity and perseverance.
Opportunity is determined by the class room teacher;
the specific measure is called allotted or allocated
time (that is allocated for learning by class room
teacher). Perseverance is the students’ involvement
with academic content during that allocated time.
Carroll proposed that perseverance be measured as
the percentage of the allocated time during which
students are actually involved in the learning process,
and was labelled engagement rate. Allocated time multiplied
by engagement rate produced the variable which Carroll
proposed as a measure of time spent, which came to
be called engaged time or time on task
Application of John Carroll’s Model in Nursing
Learning = f(Time spent/ Time needed) Time spent =
Opportunity + Perseverance.
Opportunity: It depends upon the allocated time for
theory and practical for each subject by the Indian
Nursing Council, the university, the institution,
faculty planning, faculty commitment and the ability
to provide comprehensive teaching-learning experience.
Perseverance is the nursing students’ involvement
with the academic content during that allocated time.
It includes the number of days/hours attended, leave
taken, quality teaching and learning, motivation,
aptitude, attitude, intelligence, memory, immediate
Engagement Rate = Time spent in teaching-learning
/ Time allocated for teaching and learning.
Time on Task = Engagement Rate * Time allocated for
teaching and learning
Students can learn if:
They are given enough time to learn the concept and
information taught in school and are provided quality
instruction. By quality instruction it is meant that
the teacher should:
(1) Organise subject matter into manageable learning
(2) Develop specific learning objectives for each
(3) Develop appropriate formative and summative evaluation
sufficient time allocations
(4) Plan and implement group teaching strategies with
sufficient time allocations, practice opportunities
and corrective instructions for all students to reach
the desired level of mastery.
2. Proctors’ Model This model emphasises the importance
of schools’ social climate in the teaching-learning
process. The school climate is influenced by a number
of factors. The two important factors are student
characteristics and the interaction among the individuals
involved in the schooling process.
Application in Nursing
Student learning . School climate.
Student characteristics + Interaction among the individuals
Student learning or achievement is directly proportional
to school climate.
School climate = Student characteristics + interaction
among the individuals
Student characteristics include race, gender,
economic level and past academic performance, attitudes,
norms, beliefs and prejudices.
Interaction includes the input of administrators,
teachers and students.
The outcome of learning and student’s achievement
will go up when the institution has good qualified
faculty members, adequate infrastructural facilities,
committed students, quality instructions, corrective
feedback, and good communication among
students, parents and educators. On the other hand,
adverse or negative attitudes on the part of the instructors
and administrators will erode student’s self esteem
and consequently lower the achievement level.
It is hypothesised that there is a cyclical relationship
among the variables and changes can be made at any
point along the way. These changes will affect the
institutional achievement, which will continue to
affect the social climate of the school.
It is based on the classroom and teacher. He has taken
the concept of Mitzel & Biddle and incorporated it
in his model. Mitzel classified variables as Product,
Process and Presage.
Biddle classified variables such as school and community
contents, formative experiences, class room situations,
teacher properties, teacher behaviours - intermediate
and long-term consequences.
Application in Nursing
Product <---> Process <--->Presage
Product is the outcome of learning on the part of
the students. It is the gain in knowledge, changes
in attitude and skill attainment in nursing students.
Process involves interaction between student and teacher
in various contexts such as class room, hospital,
community set up. Presage is the teacher’s intelligence,
experience and success and other teacher characteristics
as personality, attitude, aptitude, experience, motivation,
commitment and sincerity etc. Presage is supposed
to affect the process and then, of course, process
will affect the product.
variables include the following:
School and community contents: It includes
the philosophy, aims and objectives, climate of the
school and environment, facilities available in the
institution and in the environment.
Formative experiences : It is the experience gained
from the past events by the teachers, administrators,
Classroom situations: The climate, physical facilities,
furniture, control of external noise, adequate lighting,
ventilation, seating facilities etc.
Teacher properties : Teacher’s personality, attitude,
knowledge, experience, communication and assertive
Teacher’s behaviour and intermediate and long-term
effects: Ability to handle the students of various
personalities, problematic students, way of disciplining
the students, techniques used to correct the wrong
behaviours of the students. Being impartial to all
students, maintaining good interpersonal relationship
with the students etc.
4. Gage & Berliner’s Model This model
is classroom- and teacher-based and centres on the
question, “What does a teacher do?” A teacher begins
with an objective and ends with an evaluation. Instruction
connects objectives and
evaluations and is based on the teacher’s knowledge
of the student’s characteristics and how best to motivate
them. If the evaluations do not demonstrate that the
desired results have been achieved, the teacher re-teaches
the material and starts the process all over again.
Classroom management is subsumed under the rubric
of motivating students. Gage & Berliner suggest that
the teacher should use research and principles from
educational psychology to develop proper teaching
procedures to obtain optimal results.
Application in Nursing
The teacher starts teaching with the formation of specific
learning objectives and based on this, She instructs
the students. After the instruction, she evaluates the
student. So instruction connects the objectives to evaluation.
Evaluation in turn helps them to revise or modify the
specific learning objectives and prepare for further
instruction or remedial instruction.
5. Huitt’s Model
This model is not only class room-, teacher- and studentbased,
but includes additional contextual influences as well.
This adds variables related to context, and student
and teacher characteristics. Huitt advocates that
the important context variables must be considered
because our society is changing rapidly. From this
perspective, children are members of a multifaceted
society, which influences and modifies
the way they process learning as well as defines the
knowledge and skills that must be acquired to succeed
His model shows a relationship among the categories
of context (family, school, home and community environment),
input (what students and teachers bring to the class
room process), class room processes (what is going
on in the class room) and output (measures of learning
done outside the class room).
Application in Nursing
Input : It is the beginning of teaching-learning process.
Input variables include (1) Teacher characteristics
such as values, beliefs, knowledge of student, teaching-learning
process, communication skills, personality etc. (2)
Student characteristics such as study habits, learning
style, age, sex, gender, race, ethnicity, motivation,
moral, socio-emotional, cognitive, character development
and aptitude etc.
Output : It is the end of the teaching learning process.
Educators must identify or propose an end result or
outcome of teaching and learning. Until the outcome
objectives are known, nothing else can be considered.
Output measures are gain in knowledge, learning new
concepts, reading, language, mathematics etc.
Classroom processes include teacher’s behaviour, student’s
behaviour and other variables such as classroom climate,
leadership roles etc.
1. Teacher’s behaviour includes planning (getting
ready for classroom interaction), management (getting
the class under control) and instruction (guiding
the learning process). Planning activities have a
little predictable relationship with student achievement.
The other two are moderately related to student achievement.
Lack of a strong relationship may be due to teacher
inconsistency, which depends on change of the time
of day or the characteristics of a particular group
of students. The 3 variables such as correct feedback
by the teacher, reinforcement and level of student
teacher interaction are the class room predictors
of student’s success.
2. Student’s behaviour includes planning, preparation
for the class, learning readiness, need, preference
for learning and learning styles, study habits, age,
sex, gender, race, ethnicity, motivation, moral, socio-emotional,
cognitive, character development and aptitude etc.
Context variables include mother’s education, family
expectation, technology at home, facilities in the
institution, institutional climate, specific needs
of the community, prevailing health problems, demand
Intermediate outcome: Academic learning timer (ALT)
is the best class room process predictor of student
achievement. ALT is defined as “the amount of time
students are successfully involved during the learning
of content that will be tested.
Huitt proposes that ALT
should be considered as the “vital
signs” of a class room. It is
influenced by (i) School year - the
number of days available for going
to school; (ii) Attendance
year - the number of days the student
actually attends school; (iii)
School days - the number of
hours the student attends school
each day can influence ALT.Conclusion
Teaching and learning is the
fundamental concept of nursing
education. The aim of nursing
education is to prepare the
nurses with head, heart and
hand. The knowledge of nursing
is enhanced by teaching and
learning. The above mentioned
models and concepts can be understood
and applied in nursing
education to facilitate teaching
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